# Removing duplicates from lists quickly

Suppose you have lists of numbers where some values are repeated (e.g., 1,1,2,3,3,3,4,0,0). You want these duplicates (or repeated values) to be removed (e.g., 1,2,3,4,0). To avoid potentially expensive memory allocations, we want to solve the problem in-place, writing back the answer is the current array. This is a surprisingly common problem that arises when merging lists, determining the distinct elements, and in several probabilistic algorithms.

To set a reference, suppose I generate 1024 random numbers in the range [0,1024) and I sort them. This will generate a few repeated values. I want to remove them.

I use integers for my test, but we could equally work with pointers to strings or arbitrary objects.

In C++, we have an STL function for this very purpose: std::unique. On a recent Intel processor, it takes over 11 cycles per value in the array. (Java has a distinct method that does the same work.)

You might assume that this result cannot be improved much. Let us see how fast we can go.

You can gain a little bit of efficiency over STL by writing your own function:

```size_t unique(uint32_t *out, size_t len) {
if(len ==  0) return 0;
size_t pos = 1;
uint32_t oldv = out[0];
for (size_t i = 1; i < len; ++i) {
uint32_t newv = out[i];
if (newv != oldv) {
out[pos++] = newv;
}
oldv = newv;
}
return pos;
}
```

Somehow, this saves about one cycle per array value (we are just under 11 cycles per value). I am not sure why it seems to be a tiny bit faster.

The main benefit of writing our own function, however, is that it gives us a chance to think about the algorithm.

What hurts us in this code are the mispredicted branches that occur when I compare the new value with the previous one. Because I have few repetitions, the processor predicts that there will be none at all. When a repetition does occur, the pipeline must unwind and fix the problems caused by the mispredicted branch.

We can multiply the speed by about a factor of 4 (to less than 3 cycles per array value) with a branchless approach:

```static size_t hope_unique(uint32_t *out, size_t len) {
if(len ==  0) return 0; // duh!
size_t pos = 1;
uint32_t oldv = out[0];
for (size_t i = 1; i < len; ++i) {
uint32_t newv = out[i];
out[pos] = newv;
pos += (newv != oldv);
oldv = newv;
}
return pos;
}
```

Can we do better? It turns out that using SIMD instructions (with the AVX2 instruction set), we can get to about 1 cycle per array value. In that case, the code is not only branchless, but it also operates on vectors of several values at once…

```int _avx_unique_store(__m256i ov, __m256i nv, __m256i *o) {
// use the last value from ov and takes the rest from nv
__m256i recon  = _mm256_blend_epi32(ov, nv, 0b01111111);
// next two lines rotate the value, so that last is first
const __m256i mbom = _mm256_set_epi32(6,5,4,3,2,1,0,7);
__m256i vT = _mm256_permutevar8x32_epi32(recon,mbom);
// we compare the newly generated vector with the original
// comparing values with their preceeding values
// N records how many values need to be kept
int N =  8 - _mm_popcnt_u64(M);
// next two lines prune out the values based on
// the bit mask M, see https://github.com/lemire/simdprune
__m256i key = _mm256_loadu_si256(uniqshuf + M);
__m256i val =_mm256_permutevar8x32_epi32(nv,key);
_mm256_storeu_si256(o, val);
return N;
}
```

I realize that the vectorized code looks like gibberish but my goal is to assess the benefits over vectorization.

With vectorization, we are fully one order of magnitude faster than STL’s std::unique function.

As usual, my code is freely available on GitHub.

Daniel Lemire, "Removing duplicates from lists quickly," in Daniel Lemire's blog, April 10, 2017.

### Daniel Lemire

A computer science professor at the University of Quebec (TELUQ).

## 13 thoughts on “Removing duplicates from lists quickly”

1. As a compiler writer, I can nitpick a little about your “branchless” version. It does not matter for optimizing compilers, if you use a conditional “newv != oldv” as an if condition or not. The significant change is to make the store instruction unconditional (moving it out of the if branch). So `if (newv != oldv) { pos++; }` should be as fast as hope_unique.

2. Great point, but does the optimizing compiler completely removes the branching operation in this case (and also in the case of a ternary operator)? Could it be (I am just perhaps fantasizing) that CPU’s can somehow optimize pipeline in the case of short jumps (without further branches?). For example, if you need to skip a few instructions, you don’t need to purge the pipeline completely, it likely already started processing instructions after the short jump. So, if the jump happens when it’s not expected, we can simply add a few micro-commands and continue (and remove commands from the failed branch). This should be much faster, right?

1. does the optimizing compiler completely removes the branching operation

Yes as far as the assembly being produced. However different compilers implement it differently. The Intel compiler seems to rely on cmov whereas GCC favors setne followed by a move.

For example, if you need to skip a few instructions, you don’t need to purge the pipeline completely, it likely already started processing instructions after the short jump. So, if the jump happens when it’s not expected, we can simply add a few micro-commands and continue (and remove commands from the failed branch). This should be much faster, right?

In this case, there is data dependency between the steps, plus we have memory accesses.

3. Nice post, great that you publish the AVX code. Would you care to elaborate what it does at a high level? I think this would be quite helpful.

1. I really should explain it better, shouldn’t I? More later…

1. This would helpful, please, also see my other question above. I didn’t check this, but does CPU really have a branchless increment that can be used instead of the explicit branch that would be otherwise used to implement a ternary operator?

4. Ian Henderson says:

Could you rearrange uniqshuf to avoid the call to _mm256_permutevar8x32_epi32(recon,mbom)?

1. I don’t see how, but I’d be interested in any alternative design you might have.

5. Matt says:

If you remove duplicates by sorting the vector first, then isn’t the O( n.log(n) ) sort going to be the slow part, rather than the subsequent O(n) removal of adjacent duplicates?

For sufficiently large n I’d have expected using an O(n) hash set to be faster because you don’t need to sort the input first. I’d also expect a hash set to be hard to vectorize however. I wonder how big n has to be before a hash set is faster in practice.

6. Nice post. Did you submit the “branchless” improvements to libstdc++/libc++?

1. It is possible that this type of optimization violates the STL specification.

STL is not designed to be as fast as possible, but rather to be as generic as possible.

7. Jerry Coffin says:

> In C++, we have an STL function for this very purpose: std::unique. On a recent Intel processor, it takes over 11 cycles per value in the array.

You really need to qualify this much more carefully. In particular, there is no “it” to discuss here. There are several different implementations of the standard library. You may be using one that happens to run at this speed–but I might be using one that’s half as fast, or twice as fast (or might use AVX code to implement it, so it’s the same speed as your fastest version).

The standard specifies an interface. It does include complexity guarantees, but producing the best implementation for a particular target (architecture, OS, whatever) is left to…the implementation.

1. You are correct. I am taking liberties, but I justify it by providing convenient access to my source code.

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