Runtime constants: Go vs. C++

When programming in C++, you can rely on your compiler to do some interesting optimizations. Let us look at this simple code that sums up the values in an array (passed by pointer):

static int length = 10;

uint64_t sum(uint64_t * a) {
  uint64_t s = 0;
  for(int k = 0; k < length; k++)
      s += a[k];
  return s;

This code never says that the length variable is a constant. However, the static keyword restricts the scope of the variable. That is, the compiler can examine the “compilation unit” and if no part of the code modifies the variable, then it can be certain that no legal C++ code elsewhere can modify it because it simply does not know about the variable length.

Incredibly, maybe, a compiler like GNU GCC or LLVM’s clang has no problem generating very fast assembly code that makes use of the fact that length can be determined to be a constant:

add     rax, qword ptr [rdi]
add     rax, qword ptr [rdi + 16]
add     rax, qword ptr [rdi + 24]
add     rax, qword ptr [rdi + 32]
add     rax, qword ptr [rdi + 40]
add     rax, qword ptr [rdi + 48]
add     rax, qword ptr [rdi + 56]
add     rax, qword ptr [rdi + 64]
add     rax, qword ptr [rdi + 72]

That is, the compiler recognizes that the function is just the summation of 10 values. There is no need to declare the variable to be a constant.

Of course, for this to happen, you have to turn on optimization flags.

What about Go, the programming language developed within Google and strongly inspired by C?

We can try to do something similar…

package main
import "fmt"

var length int = 10

func Sum(x[]int) int {
    totalx := 0
    for i:= 0; i < length; i++{
        totalx += x[i]
    return totalx

func main() {
  var x = make([]int,length)

From this code, the Go compiler has enough knowledge to figure out that the loop is over 10 elements. In fact, it could optimize away the main function as just printing out zero. What does it do?

If you examine the assembly (go build && go tool objdump -S -s Sum gotest), you notice that Go is unable or unwilling to do this optimization. It compiles the code “naively” with lots of safety checks.

The Go wiki has a list of compiler optimizations, and there is no such optimization on the list. The list of optimizations might not be complete, but we should not be surprised that the Go compiler can’t make this optimization.

We could help Go somewhat by declaring length to be a constant by using the const keyword. We could expect a slightly more efficient loop. Even so, because Go does not do loop unrolling, the result is not even going to be close to what a C++ compiler can do, even with the const keyword.

It is worth pointing out that Go is ten years old, it is staffed by some of the best and most experienced programmers in the business, it is funded by one of the richest companies in the world. It is, reportedly, a dominant language in cloud computing.

(Before Go advocates come down hard on me, I should add that I like Go. I program in Go. But Go is not C++ or C.)

Published by

Daniel Lemire

A computer science professor at the University of Quebec (TELUQ).

13 thoughts on “Runtime constants: Go vs. C++”

    1. I take your point, and maybe comparing against C++ is not “fair”. But, as a programmer, you must be aware of the trade-offs you are making.

      As I stress in the post, I do like Go.

    1. The assembly does not look nice. I give the full command one needs to input to generate the assembly, but I omit the assembly because it is quite verbose.

      This being said, the assembly produced by modern-day programming languages is often hard to parse. That’s not necessarily a bad sign… programming languages have gotten more sophisticated and they need to do more…

      This makes it harder for programmers to understand the trade-offs involved because so much more is hidden away.

  1. I suspect Swift (llvm based) will optimize the equivalent code nicely.

    Not an Apple fanboy here. I almost missed this really nice language because I treated it as “that language for writing iPhone apps”. It is fully supported on Linux and deserves at least as much attention as Go.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.

To create code blocks or other preformatted text, indent by four spaces:

    This will be displayed in a monospaced font. The first four 
    spaces will be stripped off, but all other whitespace
    will be preserved.
    Markdown is turned off in code blocks:
     [This is not a link](

To create not a block, but an inline code span, use backticks:

Here is some inline `code`.

For more help see

You may subscribe to this blog by email.