Object Oriented Learning Objects

Those of you who have broadband and are interested in having more details about the SCTIC-CREPUQ Meeting I described earlier, you can get Stephen Downes’ slides and audio stream on Object Oriented Learning Objects:

Slides and the MP3 audio (English and French, 7 megabytes) of my presentation in Montreal are now available (the audio also includes the
presentations from other panelists, used with permission). In it, I present again the idea of “e-learning as dynamic, unstructured stream of learning resources obtained and organized by learners.” In this talk I extend the idea bit by elaborating on the community aspect of learning resources and outlining how the learning objects should be designed in order to facilitate this. More – much more – on this in the future.

By Stephen Downes, Stephen’s Web,
November 26, 2004

EC-W e b 2005 (February 19, 2005 / August 23, 2005)

6th International Conference on
Electronic Commerce and Web Technologies

E C – W e b 2005

August 23 – August 26, 2005
Copenhagen, Denmark

http://www.dexa.org

A large number of organizations are exploiting the opportunities offered by Internet-based technologies for electronic commerce and electronic business. Companies sell and purchase via the Internet, search engines and directories allow electronic market participants around the globe to locate potential trading partners, and a set of protocols and standards has been established to exchange goods and services via the Internet. The Internet is changing the way how companies and organizations are working, and the amount of innovation and change seems to accelerate. However, numerous technical issues need still to be resolved. The main objective of this conference is to bring together researchers and practitioners from different disciplines, all
interested in electronic commerce and Web technologies and to assess current methodologies and new research directions. Although a natural focus will be on computer science issues, we welcome research contributions from economics, business administration, law, and other disciplines. EC-Web 2005 is organized by the DEXA Association in parallel with DEXA 2005 (16th International Conference on Database and Expert Systems Applications).

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Suggested Topics
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The major topics of interest include but are not limited to:

* Auction and Negotiation Technology
* Agent-Mediated Electronic Commerce
* Business Process Integration
* Business Process Modeling
* Customer Relationship Management
* Decision Support and Optimization in EC
* Digital Goods and Products
* Electronic Data Interchange (EDI)
* Enterprise Application Integration
* Electronic Contracting
* Formation of Supply Chains, Coalitions, and Virtual Enterprises
* Grid Computing for EC
* Intellectual Property Licensing
* Interorganizational Systems
* IPR, Legal and Privacy Issues
* Knowledge Discovery in Web-based IS and EC
* Languages and Ontologies for Describing Goods, Services, and Contracts
* Mobile Commerce
* P2P-Computing
* Pricing and Metering of On-Demand Services
* Quality of Service (Performance, Security, Reliabilty, etc.)
* Recommender Systems
* Rule Languages and Rule-based Systems
* Security and Trust in EC
* Semantic Web
* Supply Chain Management and Supplier Relationship Management
* Ubiquitous and Pervasive Technologies for EC
* Usability Issues for EC
* User Behavior, Web Usage Mining
* Web Data Quality Aspects
* Web Data Visualization
* Web Services Computing
* Web Site Monitoring
* XML-based Standards
* Applications and Case Studies in EC

Edd Dumbill on Web 2.0

Edd Dumbill has a cool post on what the future of the Web is.

What’s hot:

  • Intellectual property and privacy law. If exchange and manipulation of data is key to the future web, then we need to understand that and be the ones in control. If corporations have too much control of data, as they are striving for, that’s the equivalent of API lock-in, and we’ll all suffer. But on the other hand, we want to tightly control the data about ourselves. An interesting conflict, about which I’d like to write more in future.
  • Transformation and annotation. Nobody’s going to own a unique hold on the form of expression of the data flying around in “web 2.0”, but they’re certainly going to want to transform between those forms. From the crude “emergent keywords” of del.icio.us to the intensive but scope-limited integration done by Google and A9, there’s going to be a lot of value in joining together previously isolated data islands.
  • Network engineering. Dumb, happy protocols that give quick results are on the rise. Look at the RSS madness, servers being pummelled. And RSS isn’t even mainstream yet, though it’s about to get that way. It gets messier before it gets better.

What’s not:

  • Complicated web service standards. Forget the WS-I lunacy. Web applications for computers were happening before the web services standards junk. Amazon would still be providing their interfaces with or without SOAP, WSDL and UDDI, and indeed all the evidence is that their users prefer to use the simpler HTTP/XML APIs anyway. As far as the web is concerned, the WS-* work is about sprinkling XML pixie dust on a failing idea.
  • Frameworks and silos. Don’t believe anyone who claims to have a wonderful new framework that’ll solve your problems if only you’d migrate everything you do to it. The web is all about separate pieces, loosely joined. The really clever businesses know how to manage uncertainty, they’re not looking to eliminate it. Circling the wagons will not integrate you into the web, neither will it promote web-like innovation inside a business.

Computing argmax fast in Python

Update: see Fast argmax in Python for the final word.

Python doesn’t come with an argmax function built-in. That is, a function that tells you where a maximum is in an array. And I keep needing to write my own argmax function so I’m getting better and better at it. Here’s the best I could come up with so far:

from itertools import izip
argmax = lambda array: max(izip(array, xrange(len(array))))[1]

The really nice thing about izip and xrange is that they don’t actually output arrays, but only lazy iterators. You also have plenty of similar functions such as imap or ifilter. Very neat.

Here’s a challenge to you: can you do better? That is, can you write a faster, less memory hungry function? If not, did I find the optimal solution? If so, do I get some kind of prize?

Next, suppose you want to find argmax, but excluding some set of bad indexes, you can do it this way…

from itertools import izip
argmaxbad = lambda array,badindexes: max(ifilter(lambda t: t[1] not in badindexes,izip(array, xrange(len(array)))))[1]

Python is amazingly easy.

As a side-note, you can also do intersections and union of sets in Python in a similar (functional) spirit:
def intersection(set1,set2): return filter(lambda s:s in set2,set1)
def union(set1, set2): return set1 + filter(lambda s:s not in set1, set2)

Update: you can do the same things with hash tables:
max(izip(hashtable[max].itervalues(), hashtable[max].iterkeys()))[1]

Aaron Straup Cope’s NYTimes Widgets

One of the most interesting talk we had at SWIG’04 was “Design Issues and Technical Challenges Making the Eatdrinkfeelgood Markup Language RDF” where Aaron showed why it was hard to use RDF in a XML project. I think it all boils down to the fact that we have no good widespread way of serializing RDF to XML. In any case, Aaron finally sent me a link to his NYTimes Widgets.

It lacks sufficient documentation for me to grok it quickly, but from what I understand, Aaron tried to create a useful and innovative RDF application. Here’s what he says about his widgets:

The New York Times includes a large amount of topical metadata with each article it publishes. These are widgets that, having harvested the data, try to do something interesting with it.

Good software engineering according to Paul Graham

Paul Graham describes what good software developers do:

In software, paradoxical as it sounds, good craftsmanship means working fast. If you work slowly and meticulously, you merely end up with a very fine implementation of your initial, mistaken idea. Working slowly and meticulously is premature optimization. Better to get a prototype done fast, and see what new ideas it gives you.

RSS is the Semantic Web

Here’s what Stephen Downes has to say about the Semantic Web:

RSS is the semantic web. It is not the official semantic web as I said, it is not sanctioned by any standards body or organization whatsoever. But RSS is what has emerged as the de facto description of online content, used by more than four million sites already worldwide, used to describe not only resources, but people, places, objects, calendar entries, and in my way of thinking, learning resources and learning objects.

What makes RSS work is that it approaches search a lot more like Google and a lot less like the Federated search described above. Metadata moves freely about the internet, is aggregated not by one but by many sources, is recombined, and fed forward. RSS is now used to describe the content of blogs, and when aggregated, is the combining of blog posts into new and novel forms. Sites like Technorati and Bloglines, Popdex and Blog Digger are just exploring this potential. RSS is the new syntax, and the people using it have found a voice.

TOOL: The Open Opinion Layer

Here’s an interesting paper by Hassan Masum, TOOL: The Open Opinion Layer. Here’s the abstract:

Shared opinions drive society: what we read, how we vote, and where we shop are all heavily influenced by the choices of others. However, the cost in time and money to systematically share opinions remains high, while the actual performance history of opinion generators is often not tracked.

This article explores the development of a distributed open opinion layer, which is given the generic name of TOOL. Similar to the evolution of network protocols as an underlying layer for many computational tasks, we suggest that TOOL has the potential to become a common substrate upon which many scientific, commercial, and social activities will be based.

Valuation decisions are ubiquitous in human interaction and thought itself. Incorporating information valuation into a computational layer will be as significant a step forward as our current communication and information retrieval layers.

Follow-up on “Sébastien Paquet on blogs and wikis”

In one my previous post commenting on the fact that technology had changed dramatically learning, I predicted that in 5 years, it would be an accepted fact that some university courses are better taught using mostly technology and very little live input from an instructor…

I had one reply from an anonymous Scott (but I know who you are!) which is worth citing in full here:

If you equate learning with time spent in school, then I tend to agree (…) there is a lot of value in the traditional methods, and we would be foolish to replace them with untested modern contrivances (bordering here on the “computers in schools” debate).

But if you view learning as a continuous experience that is not confined to attendance at institutionalized schools, then I wholeheartedly agree (…). I left the research world for five years (1997-2002), and was astounded when I returned at how the process of dissemintation and discovery has been completely transformed by the Internet. Academic discourse these days is utterly dependent on electricity.

And I see elements of the same transformation in schools at every level. I run a couple of historical Web sites, and I receive an endless stream of questions from students doing projects. But I think the more important observation is that students (of all ages) are applying the information discovery skills they learn in school (and on their own) to other activities. Here’s an example. Our 15 year old TV and two 15 year old VCRs all decided to die in October. So we’re now faced with the daunting task of choosing new technology. Buying a TV used to be easy: you chose your size, identified some trusted brands, then picked a cabinet to match your decor. These days, you have to choose between CRT vs LCD vs projection vs plasma, 19:6 vs 4:3, HD capable or not, progressive scan vs interlace, presence of RF/composite/s-video/component connectors, etc. And that’s just the TV. What about a replacement VCR? Really, you want a DVD recorder that plays about a dozen disk formats, and you also have to think about future requirements for networked content delivery throughout the house, and compatibility between all the components. The combinatorial explosion is overwhelming. I know that my father could no longer make a choice of television that was better than a random guess. So I asked the sales guy how much time they have to devote to educating customers these days regarding all the options, expecting to hear that people generally feel as overwhelmed as I do. But the answer was quite the opposite. The guy said that most customers (of all ages – I specifically asked about age) come to the store with a comprehensive understanding of the options. Not only do they understand the choices (often following guides from such places as Consumer Reports), but they come armed with reviews from epinions.com, advice from discussion forums, (wikis and blogs?), etc. The sales guy said that as often as not they learn something from the customer.

If that isn’t a fundamental (and welcome) change in how people learn, I don’t know what is. It suggests to me a process of continuous and pervasive learning that I rarely saw emerge from traditional schools. Yet that’s the culture that today’s children are experiencing. I don’t know if calculus teachers will be obsolete in five years, but neither do I see the pace of change slowing any time soon. If anything, I expect it to accelerate as technologies for continuous social communication and global network access (cell/PDA/SMS/IM/etc) go mainstream.